November 13, 2007

नेपाल सम्बतको बारे

नेपाल सम्बतको पहिलो दिन गोवर्धन पुजाको दिन पारेर शुभकामना साटासाट गर्ने चलन छ । यो सम्वत सम्पूर्ण भारत महाद्वीपको इतिहासमा देशको नाममा समर्पित एकमात्र सम्बत हो । यसै दिन नेपालमा गोवर्धन पुजा नगरी शरीर पुजा गर्ने समुदाय पनि छन र किंवदन्तिहरुले यो दुइ चिरा याने कि गोवर्धन पुजा गर्ने रे शरीर पुजा गर्नेलाइ अलौकिक कृष्णसित जोडेका छन । भगवान कृष्णले गोवर्धन पर्वत उठाएर दुष्टदेवराज इन्द्रको क्रोधबाट बचाएपछि जनताहरु खूशी भएर कोहि गोवर्धन पर्वतको पुजा गर्न तिर लागे कोहि आफैलाइ पुजा गर्न तिर लागे रे । किंवदन्ति न हो, तेत्रो उद्दार गरिदिएका कृष्णलाइ किन पुजा नगरेका होलान भनेर प्रश्न सोध्न सकिन्न अथवा सोधेपनि उत्तर छैन ।

नेपाल सम्बत कसरी प्रारम्भ भयो भन्ने बिषयमा पनि किंवदन्ती नै छ जुन अपत्यारीलो छ । तर यसै किंवदन्तीलाइ आधार मानेर नेपाल सम्बतको अवमुल्यन गर्न मिल्दैन । हाल नेपालमा नेपाल सम्बतलाइ प्रयोगमा ल्याउने मुद्दा पनि उठी रहेको छ । तर मेरो विचारमा यसमा केहि ब्यवहारीक कठिनाइ छ । यसै सेरोफेरोमा लेखेको यो टुक्रो दौँतरी माझ बहसको लागि प्रस्तूत गर्छु, हुन्छ ?

One of the most innovative work of our great ancestors and their leader Mr. Shankhadhar Sakhwa is in highlight of media these days. Yes, they did an extraordinary and unique job - creation of an era devoted to nation and people - unlike many other eras of their time devoted to a powerful king (or political/religious leader). We are certainly familiar with the hear-say story that tells about Mr. Shakhadhar Sakhwa, who turned to be a very very rich man overnight. But, my gut feeling says, only the consequences in the story might be true not the whole story.

It is to be noted that we still have deep-rooted feudal structure of medieval times in our society at this 21st century. We can just imagine how rigid and faithful was our society toward the feudal core values a millenium before. The level of public awareness and a quest for equality among all must be at very poor level. Yet they displayed a unique unity among public, and established a new era devoted to our country which had displaced another era devoted to one of the great ancestor (King Manadev) of then ruling King Raghavdev. This single fact could pose a huge research issue to unravel the hidden truth behind the whole episode of transitioning nepalese society into a new era.

The influence of King and his creations have impact on our society for several generations. For example, we still live under the huge influence of Prithvi Narayan Shah, the great ancestor of current king. We don't feel comfortable in digging out his war-atrocities during his invasion and pre-emptive attacks against other countries around. I have seen no article from intellectual capacity in appraisal of dismantling PN Shah's statue last year when public were venting their anger against current King Gyanendra. We don't feel comfortable discrediting PN Shah for expanding national boarder because we are living in the country he founded. The same sort of deep faith must be there within public and then ruling King Raghavdev toward their ancestor King Manadev, who formed a strong country expanding to larger area than PN Shah did. Abandoning Manadev's era is possible only through a massive revoloution just like we had one recently in Nepal that weakened feudal control in our society and degraded public faith toward the feudal centers. Therefore, it is quite logical to make a bold guess that the transition of era in Nepal a millenium ago represents a huge revolution against social unjustice and imbalance.

Shankhadhar Sakhwa must be a leader to create a stable society in which economic condition of public was given the most importance. It is our great unfortunate to find no documentation of the details, probably due to the feudal conspiracy intending to discredit the deed of justice. In Nepal's history, there are several examples of such attempts.

Nepal Sambat was constantly popular in Nepal for more than 800 years despite having the political conditions changed a lot. It started to face a heavy domination only a century ago due to some vested interest of then rulers of Rana regime. The Rana regime were controlling Nepal as their private business company, and all government staffs were treated as their company workers. They could hire and fire or change duties of civil servants anytime they wanted even without presenting any logic or reason. Not only the Rana regime is ill-famous for its HUKUMI style of ruling but also the civil servants were hugely underpaid. But for civil servants, they had an opportunity to cheer up once in every 3 years, because the lunar calendar of Nepal Sambat has 13 months a year of cycle once in every 3 years, which helped them to have an extra month salary in 3 years. The rana regime wanted to cut-off the extra salary for their private benefit, and hence they imposed Vikram Sambat, which is still in effect in Nepal.

The movement to revive Nepal Sambat started once again about 3 decades ago. The movement is getting stronger as we are getting able to understand the importance of the Sambat and its contribution to Nepal. However, there are some people skeptic toward the Nepal Sambat for a few reasons. The first is their unwillingness to face a change in era from Vikram Sambat. It is strange to see that those people hate Rana regime, but love to keep the system these unpopular Rana had imposed forcefully for their vested interests without doing any benefit to public.

The second reason is the lunar-cycle based date system of Nepal Sambat, which does not have a 24 hour daily cycle. Its non-uniform daily cycle is certainly more advanced and scientific than a forced 24-hour uniform daily cycle. The lunar-cycle based dates of Nepal Sambat has almost a real-time synchronization with orbital positions of Sun, Earth and Moon. However, it is a complex system to understand for ordinary people and is definitely impractical to adopt marking daily calendar. I think, this problem has no solution except adopting a near-solar cycle based system that has a forced 24-hour daily cycle with some adjustments. The best one is to adopt Gregorian daily calendar that is used all over the world. It would turn out to be unique and practical and would work excellent exactly the same as it works in Japan. Japan has adopted Japanese year and gregorian month and days for official use. For example, my birthday is NS 1094 Chaulathwo Saptami, which turns to be 2029 Chaitra 27 and 1973 April 9. Converting dates among these three calendars is complex mathematical problem, and simply out of capacity for ordinary people. The japanese calendar converts this date to S48-04-09 (where SYY=YYYY-1925; The first alphabet "S" changes as they have a new king. They are using HYY currently), which is simple once the Gregorian date is known. We can also write our date in the same format such as N094-04-09 (where NYYY=YYYY-879; we can have N standing for Nepal Era for a thousand year). This format can be used in all practical purposes without any conflict.

The third reason of hesitation is the feeling that this is a Newar era. This feeling is seen among non-newar community, who are less aware of historical facts that such feeling was intentionally imposed by Chandra Shumshel to defame the popularity of Nepal Sambat. He actually banned to use Nepal sambat in all purposes, even in voluntary uses and therefore Nepal Sambat survived secretly within the raj jyotish groups, baidyas, joshis, rajopadhyayas and some history scholars. It was very difficult for ordinary people to know about Nepal Sambat who are not involved in the movement of reviving Nepal Sambat.

The other widespread confusion is the association of Newar Festival Mha Pujaa and the Nepal Sambat. The first day of Nepal Sambat begins on the day of Mha Puja, but these two events are separate. Mha Puja has cultural value and Nepal Sambat has political value. We must appreciate these two matters separately in the light of their own merits but the good combination is they both are on the same day. I particularly consider Mha Puja as the event of making people conscious to their own health and food habits. Hours long elaboration can be done in this issue alone. Mha Puja is certaily a Newar festival but not limited to only Newars. Notice that the Mha Puja does not integrate with any of the issues of paying loans of public or providing economic freedom or becoming rich after getting huge amount of golds which are the part of the hear-say story. Therefore it is totally silly to opine that Mha Puja and Nepal Sambat is linked to each other.

Because Nepal's most revolutions got started in capital and got succeeded after it clutched up the entire nation, the Nepal Sambat reviving movement is also following the same route. It is our responsibility to understand the norms and values of Nepal Sambat, participate in arguing for and against its merits and demerits, help in research and educating our younger generation in our capacity such that we would not lose one of our decent achievement in our history and the pioneering work of our ancestors toward having a justice society.

(More information and historic events may be seen at


PB said...

Interesting piece. I am not sure, if the Chanaa wrote the English part of the article. Anyway, I gotta refute with the writing for the most part.
1. When you want to change the ongoing calendar system, which is clear that you want to; why didn’t you state the merits of the Nepal Sambat rather than
just denigrating and disparaging the other calendars. Then the question comes, WHY WE SHOULD CHANGE THE CALENDAR?
2. You just said Rana changed it? Which Rana PM changed it? Was NS prevalent in Nepali society before it was changed? I would like to clarify the writer that by saying
Nepal society, I meant Nepal as a whole not just Kathmandu valley.
3. You just said that it has political importance and also try to allude that because of it, NS doesn’t exist as an official calendar.
4. Dude, are you serious when u wrote that you want an intellect article of appraisal for destroying the hundreds of years old statue??
5. You want dig about the pre-emptive strike of PNS, but don’t want ratify his larger contribution to Nepal society, which is to give you the identity of what you are now. Aren’t you happy of being in Nepal ranging from Mechi to Mahakali? Or do you think kantipur, Bhadgaun, Chaubisi or Baaise would have sustained their identity just being what they were? Though I gotta agree that History should be fair and balance but we should also gotta understand the impact; not just to delve on the issues which are not more relevant.
6. Why do u want to change the Bikram Sambhat??? You are even ready to go to Japanese calendar??

I came to conclusion that there are other reasons or brimming anger or interests, which is beyond my capacity to comprehend, other than you wrote in this writing (the fact is you did none) which made you to write this article.

Postak_Shrestha said...

I don’t see anywhere the writer of the original post advocates of replacing Bikram Era by Nepal Era. Maverick’s outbursts against the writer are simply a prejudice. In my understanding, the writer is just trying to clarify the prevalent confusions about Nepal Era. He clearly mentions that Nepal Era is complex for lay people and impractical to use. He has mentioned that Gregorian calendar is the best for practical use and suggests Japanese way in our context. He neither says that we have to follow the Japanese Calendar.

Gregorian, Bikram and Nepal era are all use in Nepal and Nepal Era is the only native era of Nepal and it’s unique in whole world as it’s the only calendar in the world, named after a country. All Nepali festivals are celebrated according to Nepal Era and even the Shaha King and family members follow the Nepal Era calendar for their birth day and other auspicious celebrations within the palace.

This calendar came into existence during the reign of King Raghav Dev in October 879, by replacing Saka Samvat 802 and was in continuous official use in Nepal for 889 years from 879 to 1769 AD. Actually, it’s not the RANAs but the feudalist and expansionist king PNS of Gorkha who discontinued Nepal Sambat and tried to revive Saka Sambat after he invaded Kathmandu in 1779 AD. Instead of continuing and preserving the local traditions and cultures, he tried to abolish the norms and values of Kathmandu Valley. Later in 1903 AD, Rana Prime Minister Chandra Samsher imported Bikram Sambat to replace Saka Sambat as well.

Talking about Bikram Sambat, obviously questions rise why we have to follow Bikram Sambat. What was the role of King Bikramaditya in Nepal and why do we cherish his name? Secondly, the Bikram Era is also not free of complexities. It’s based on the motion of stars and in every 70 year, season comes one day earlier. So, by now, the effect has already accumulated to 24 days. This means that Maghe Sakranti actually falls on Poush 7th. Similarly the New Year falls on Chaitra 7th, instead of Baisakh 1st. As the Bikram Era is not updated for the last two millennia, it’s loosing its seasonal relevance and there are voices rising in Nepal and India to update Bikram Era.

Nepal Era is the native Era of Nepal and it’s our cultural asset and we have to preserve it. It’s derogatory to link Nepal era with Newars and express an indifference towards it.

PB said...

Lol Brilliantman,
Nice word prejudice, your or mine??lol

Anonymous said...

Although you stated you gotta refute my above blog, I saw you questioning obvious facts only. Let me answer them for you.

1. Two main merits of the Nepal Sambat over Vikram Sambat are its wide spread use in nepalese society and the message of economic freedom and independence. But I don't have argued Nepal Sambat as the best one. Currently used Vikram Sambat is getting unpopular because of its unpractical dating arrangements. If anyone propose abandoning Vikram Sambat, I would't oppose.

2. I think you got answer of this point from Brilliantman (Thanx Bril). Yes NS was prevlanet in the entire society (it is still prevalent) because this calendar guides all festivals and auspicious dates in our society irrespective communal and regional differences.

3. I consider change of era is not a simple or regular process of change in the evolution of historic events. Although the hear-say story does not talk about a scrambling king or rebelling population, the changed era is clearly a sign of public refusal to link the name of King Manadev in the era they were using then. Available historic proofs say NS existed as the official calendar in Nepal.

4. I think you got this point exactly opposite than I meant. I was trying to compare how public of King Raghavdev's reign felt for King Manadev by taking an example of PN Shah's impression among wise people of current generation.

5. This point too, you got to go back and re-read those lines.

6. I think you got answer of this point from Bril.

Regarding your last para, I just have to say - 'You are free to build any castle of your imagination'. Certainly Brill's elaboration has shed further lights in the point I wanted make. Thanks to Brill once again.

rahulvai said...

Thanks Chana bro, a nice piece. Recently, I read an article about nepal sambat in Kantipur. We should also think over his findings.

PB said...

It wasn’t an outburst, was just a rebuttal. Well, you must have thought so, coz I can understand ur sensitivity towards the issue. I can understand ur abhorrence for Bikram S, as Maghe sangranti falls in Poush 7. OMG, how it can be..omg… obviously just in jest.

Being interested in both History and Science, I started reading this article with much of an alacrity but totally found biased towards what I have been following all my life and my peers. The fabricated and anachronistic examples were completely out of context.
“I don’t see anywhere the writer of the original post advocates of replacing Bikram Era by Nepal Era” You can read the post and you can sense that dude.

“In my understanding, the writer is just trying to clarify the prevalent confusions about Nepal Era”: First of all, what was the confusion?? What was clarified??

I neither see any clarification nor any analysis. But it was just the rag tag facts collected from here and there. But what it was a just a venting out frustration for PNS winning the KTM, staying in KTM but his successor’s didn’t continue the calendar which was prevalent in the valley. That’s why you guys are stating again n again that it was prevalent in Nepal previously. I don’t think they were used in any other places, which for your kind information is Nepal too.
If the writer doesn’t want to change or do whatever he wants with the Bikram.S, then why would he bring that conversion thing into the context? Why the heck we should care of what Japan does, when our current system is equally running good? Btw, Japan changed their calendar system in the Meige Regime where they wanted to westernize all their daily chores. It wasn’t because they were uncomfortable coz some funky Japanese festival fell some three days before the actual date.
Saka Sambhat and Bikram Sambhat are the lunisolar calendars which are derived from the Arya Hindu calendar formed some 5000 years back mainly know as Panchak with other regional eponyms, which is a lunar calendar. Panchangam means five attributes of Hindu calendar day that is Tithi, Vaar, Nakshatra, Yoga, and Karana. Hindu tradition, royal tradition and day to day general Nepalese follow these thing rather than what you have mentioned above. So please stop trying to glorify what u want with fabricated facts and then nullify the other just for the sake of it.
The use of word “expansionist” for PNS is totally of anachronistic, considering the geo-political and socio-political scenario of that time. I won’t argue for the feudalistic coz the principalities he won had also same system. When everybody is of same size, I dunno how you can pick someone to be fat. And the funniest thing, and to the extent-the main reason for me to writing these comments- is the contradictory and incongruous uses of the words and views in the article.
- What’s the purpose of digging Manadev out of grave to discuss about the calendar which was apparently (guess) some 400 years back?? The apparent logic from the writing is that he wants to have grand transition in society by eradicating all the feudal vestiges of the past. I guess, he gonna suggest a new calendar starting from today, in another piece. lol
- At one place, writer is condoning and in fact lionizing the acts of destroying the statues hundreds of years old, which literally worth millions of dollar and also has significant value, even after April revolution; where as on other paragraph he is pontificating the cultural assets and values. Or do you want to destroy all the durbars and temples, which were also made when a deep rooted feudal system was there in Nepal as a whole, just to have a grand transition what you insinuated. Then what, another feudal system for another millennium? Aren’t we bit mature as a human to think beyond that?
- He sees more cultural and political importance of Sankhadhar Shakya than PNS. ( well author and their friend cant refute by saying its not up there, if you want then I’ll justify by those words and line used)
- He is saying it would be good to change the Bikram S, due to its unpractical dating practices but won’t mind any other calendars which are not perfect either.
- Another thing, I bet you guys are wise, educated and cultured. Then why keep on using the word Nepal, for Kathmandu valley. You can argue that from KTM, the name came up; but it would be difficult for readers like me to understand when you say “prevalent in Nepal some 870 AD”. Does it just mean valley of that time or the Nepal which we know today?

Anonymous said...

School history books are biased and full of bogos. Has it mentioned Nepal Sambat was used once? May be but I didnt know that those "Ause and Purne" are from Nepal sambat. I thought those "Ause, Purne" are from lunar calender. It means Lunar calender and Nepal Sambat is same. But still we follow it like India follow Bikram sambat with small font on the calender. One thing I really admire about Lunar Calender is without any telescope or astronomical instrument, they can tell exact time for Lunar and Solar eclipse. Thts cool! Since people make rallies and other things during Nepal sambat, I thought Nepal sambat and Nepal Bhasa are related. One thing we should not forget about Nepal Bhasa contribution - King Mahendra urged international community that Nepal is a different country and it is not part of India by mentioning Nepal Bhasa as our national language. He proved it has different script than Hindi. Then afterward, Nepal got international fund directly to Nepal instead of through India.
Thanks for the Nepal Sambat highlight.

Anonymous said...


Thanks for the link, I read the piece. He insists that the historic facts should not be fabricated, otherwise all history will turn to be hear-say story. By saying that in the beginning he pretend to be writing only the facts, which was quite interesting until the last paragraph. But, I could not digest when he wrote - ... विक्रम संवत तथा नेपाल संवत दुवै नेपालका उपज हुन । .... Never had I heard before that vikram sambat was rooted from Nepal. When he himself is trying to fool people with so wild falsehood, how can I believe those so called findings are truth? They are his arguments, just arguments.


I appreciate your interest in both history and science but your elongated comment did not impress me at all. First you have prejudice that I am against PNS's unification - which is totally wrong. If you make this fact clear, you will correct half of your explanations yourself. PNS changed calendar from Nepal Sambat to Saka Sambat - and I did not comment on that. (Here too, you are falsely portraying that the article is venting out frustration for PNS winning the KTM, right?). Secondly, if you seriously doubt on the use of Nepal Sambat in Nepal, I surely doubt how much you are familiar with Nepal's history. Otherwise, for a person who has interest in history (of Nepal) must have understood the extent of use of Nepal Sambat. It was not a few years or decades, but almost 9 centuries, and Nepal was not always limited within the Kathmandu valley in that long span of time. There were Lichchavis, Thakuris, Mallas, Sens, Khas kings etc. etc. and most of them have left the inscripts printed on stone with date marks in Nepal Sambat. Third, you argued Vikram Sambat is also a lunisolar and is derived from Arya Hindu Calendar. I am not convinced on it, can you explain it and compare with Nepal Sambat? Are you familiar with differences in nomenclature and dating system among these three calendars? Since you mentioned panchangam attributes here, I certainly expect you produce here a well-versed analysis.

[PS: I'm feeling lazy to type more for Maverick, I certainly have a lot more arguments to exhibit my disagreement on what you wrote lately.]


You are right about the school history books, however, we have a large mass who believe those books are the only history of Nepal. I hope you have now understood Nepal Sambat and Nepal Bhasha are NOT related.

Postak_Shrestha said...

Maverick bro: What you have mentioned about panchanga is true. It comprises the features of solar year and varas as well as lunar tithis and nakshetras and karanas. But I didn’t know that Vikram Era follows Panchanga. If you have any reference on this, please let us know.
Its true that all 5 limbs of panchanga-vara, tithi, nakshetra, yog and karana are used to determine an auspicious time, but majority of festivals fall according to Tithi and nakshetra and as Nepal Samvat purely follows lunar calendar, its obvious to claim that our festivals are based on Nepal Samvat. A lunar month precisely is 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes and 3 seconds long. Twelve such months constitute a lunar year of 354 days 8 hours 48 minutes and 36 seconds. So, in order to match with solar year, Nepal Era adds an additional month (Adhik Mass) in every 2 ½ years.

No matter how many different calendars are practiced in the world, all are based on sun and moon and some other celestial things. We must understand that Vikram, Saka and Nepal Era are political names of these calendars. Vikram and Saka Eras are associated with Indian Kings where as Nepal Era has its roots purely in Nepal. Of course, Nepal was limited within Kathmandu Valley and few surrounding regions in the medieval time, but during kiratis, lichhavis and Thakuri period, Nepal was much bigger. It’s certainly questionable why an Independent kingdom of Nepal follows the era introduced by an Indian king.
King Vikramaditya introduced Vikram Era in 57 BC to mark his victory over Sakas in Ujjain.
Its beyond my understanding why an Indian Era is so near and dear to some people.
If you say that it’s a tedious and cumbersome and expensive to change the era and there are many other more important things to do in Nepal, I will agree with you but if you are refusing it because you think it’s associated with Newar and that medieval Nepal was only Kathmandu Valley, then it’s a very derogatory thinking.

Talking about PNS, I don’t believe that he initiated unification for any good purpose. He was just an ambitious king with greed of power and wealth. Politically, may be he unified, but culturally he devastated the principalities he won. If it was for unification, he wouldn’t chop off the nose of kirtipures, skin off Jayant Rana and kill pradhanas by trick.
I don’t care about what Nepal would have been like, had PNS not conquered Nepal, like I don’t care where I would have been, had my father not met my mother and not married her.

In the medieval time, there were more than 50 independent principalities in Nepal and 500 principalities in India and all the kings were trying to expand their territory. Had PNS not unified Nepal, may be some other king would have taken that job. Had any Indian King won us, we would have been Indian and had any Tibetan king won us, we would have been Tibetan or Chinese, like any child born in USA, becomes American today. Does it make any difference to the generation of today?

Important is not who fathered you but who nourished you and PNS and his successors have failed to nourish the country and people. Had they been good kings, Nepal would not have been first from the buttom in the list of poor countries. What do you say, dude?

PB said...

Sorry for the brief hiatus.
Rahul bro: I couldn’t open it. Could you please provide me the date, when it was published?
First of all I didn’t write those comments to impress you.
I do think that I don’t have that bad memory, but reading the post again; I am scratching my head, if it has been heavily edited. Or I am just confused? I thought there was a particular line where it was written something like: “NS is ubiquitous, used by all Nepalese including the royals”. Though, I am not sure. Nevermind.
“I appreciate your interest in both history and science but your elongated comment did not impress me at all.” Thank you for your appreciation.
For first paragraph, well it’s the matter of Colberic “truthiness”. I don’t claim on Supreme Court that I am accurate but again that’s what I do think. If you are not; it’s your wish. If you are also, it won’t matter to me.
Now, I am not talking about the medieval or ancient time. Justify your comments with present examples. Next day, you may claim that there was this “something” name for money in what ever era, why to keep to keep the name ‘Rupees’ which is similar with India. What about changing Nepali to Newari. I guess, I gave you one more topic for posting. Change the national language to Newari, since it came from the valley and most of the culture started from valley and spread across Nepal.
If you talk about my interest in history, let me also clarify this to you that, prior to the unification of Nepal by PNS, I see it in a context of subcontinent history, whether it may be ‘baissi’, ‘chousbise’ or ‘kerala’ or ‘karnataka’. Though I do have more interest in cultures of ‘baisi rajya’ than of ‘bareli’ to the extent which impact us(the present day nepal) but it’s similar for me the changes done by king of Paltiputra or done by Rangadev. Though, I got to sheepishly acknowledge that what was the name of kingdom of Mandev, which in my guess was not Nepal. So lets not proclaim a country which was not even there as Indians do; proclaiming whole land from northern Himalaya as India.
I would have love to see “its not write in blog” than “I am not convinced”. If you were not convinced, if you didn’t know what is right or wrong of all the calendars you presented above, then how were you able to write a piece for it. Well, you told me to analyse which is a good thing. But first of all why don’t you analyze, write how NS operate in details. Also do say that, how is it derived? From where was it derived? Or, it was astrologer in Sankhadhar’s period built it from scratch.
Next, you don’t have reply me. You just can hide.
Well for the first paragraph where you said the using of Bikram S is question to Nepal freedom, I gave my answer just above.
Regarding that you don’t care. I find this little contradictory. If you don’t care about any thing, then why do care about something which is changed some 10 decades ago.
About PNS, I agree with you partilially that I also don’t think that he started unification, to make a country called Nepal ranging from Mechi to Mahakali. But I do think that he started with a vision of saving this part of world from English slaveries. And the impact was big, esp for us present Nepalese. So I do have higher regards for him about that.
The last para has a interesting phrase: ’had they been’
Well you can post more than goggle question from that:
“Had Malla kings were good, there wouldn’t have been division in valley or had they been not so slack or drunk, they wouldn’t have forfeited the country in three hours?”
“Had I been rich, I wonder I would be writing in this place?”
You can keep going on dude

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